Insurance policies are contracts drafted by insurers, but the terms are not always clear and unambiguous. When a dispute arises between an insured and an insurer as to the meaning of a policy, courts sometimes become involved to provide a construction of the ambiguous term, as they do with other types of contracts. Disputes usually involve which risks are included in coverage, exclusions from coverage, conditions that must be fulfilled before coverage applies, and forfeitures of the policy.
A declaratory judgment action may be brought by a plaintiff who is unsure of his legal right to recover from a defendant. This type of action is available to both an insured and an insurer to determine each party's rights, duties, obligations, and liabilities under an insurance policy.
Aviation hull insurance is a form of property insurance in which the property is an aircraft. Loss of value and loss of use of aircraft specified in the policy normally is covered. Aviation hull insurance may be the subject of a separate policy or it may be included within a policy that also provides the aircraft owner with coverage for liability to third parties arising from an accident involving the aircraft.
Reinsurance is the process by which an insurance company shares the risk that it assumes when it issues an insurance policy. For example, an insurance company that issues a $1 million life insurance policy may reinsure or have other insurers assume $900,000 of the risk. The insurance company issuing the policy thus "cedes" most of the risk to one or more reinsurers.